SCHEME FOR BREEDING OF LOCAL COWS IN THE STATE OF GOA
The Livestock Economy penetrates sections of rural society both vertically and laterally, supposedly more equitably than land holdings.
Considerably there have been dramatic favourable changes in livestock population and composition over the past five decades, but overall impact on poor has not been much.
Goa has its own Breeding Policy and accordingly animal are to be bred using Jersey/ Sahiwal semen. However, the local cattle owners find it very difficult to stall-feed their unproductive indigenous cattle. This leads to the animals roaming in the streets looking for grazing patches or feeding from the dustbins as scavenger cows. Deaths in these cows are reported due to consumption of plastic bags over a period of time, which is total loss to the farmer and the State. Unlike stray dogs, the stray cattle have owners, who due to their own financial circumstances cannot stall feed the unproductive animals, as it is a further burden to their pocket. Presently, there is no Government scheme or any agency to take care of the unproductive and low milk yielding local animals. The promotion of dairy husbandry through crossbreeding of low productive local cattle is therefore to be given priority as most of the villagers own a few cattle. This programme will ensure techno-economic viability and prosperity to the small farmers. Local Cattle breeding, was initiated by the Government of Goa in early 70�s, but was not popular, due to the high feeding cost during stall feeding.
Considering this scenario, further research and technology transfer are needed in areas of genetic improvement, reproductive efficiency, and nutrition and health care, all these areas are equally important to improve the overall quantity and quality of milk production. However, although genetic improvement deserves priority, the farmers need to be involved in the up gradation project for their local cattle keeping in mind the necessity of preserving the precious native breeds. Genetic improvement in this direction can further promote economic and eco-friendly dairy husbandry, which the small farmers are looking forward for their sustainable livelihood.
POINTS WHICH NEED CONSIDERATION
- Crossbreeding of the Local Cattle (which is the major constituent of our livestock population) is facing newer challenges and these need to be addressed promptly and adequately to bring in a rapid improvement in quality hybrid cattle population.
- Due to Low productivity of local animal there is practical stabilization or fall of cow population.
- Limitations of feed resources both in terms of qualitative and quantitative terms.
- Prevalence of communicable diseases to be tackled systematically and in the time framework amongst local cattle population.
- Lack of adequate farmers organization and breeders societies in the state.
- Poor nutrition.
- Except for 10 to 15 % of the milch breeds, the rest of the local cows yield about 200-350 kg milk per lactation and often suffer from many problems, mainly due to neglect and nutritional deficiency. Their calving intervals are long and irregular. The males are smaller and weak. Such animals become counter productive and a economic loss to the farmers.
- Among the livestock, cattle are maintained by nearly all sections of the rural community and, unlike other natural resources, it is well distributed among small and large landholders
The main Objectives of the scheme are as follows:
To improve & sustain the productivity of local livestock through use of Artificial Insemination practices.
To compensate the farmer for the man-hours lost in approaching the local Veterinarian.
To assist the farmer financially in stall feeding the local animals.
To indirectly reduce the menace of stray animals.
- All farmers availing of the Artificial Insemination Facility for Local cattle and registered with the local Government Veterinary Services.
- N.G.O's and other organizations availing of the A.I. to local cows will also be eligible for the benefits under the scheme.
- All farmers irrespective of their financial status.
- There is no limitation to the number of animals covered by individual farmer, or organization.
Expectation on implementation of the Scheme:
This programme will eliminate stray cattle and conserve community or individual paddy field, crops, plantations and forests from being destroyed by grazing of stray cattle.
- Door to door, service will help them to avail of timely services and to develop confidence in adoption of the technology.
- Promotion of healthy crossbred cattle.
- Five hundred local cows will be covered in the first year.
- Unproductive local cattle population will be reduced.
- Non-dependence on neighbouring States by beneficiaries for their requirement of Crossbred animals under various Government Schemes
The scheme consists of two phases. The first phase deals with the Artificial Insemination of the Local Cows. The second phase is the confirmation of pregnancy and feeding incentive. Both phases are to be implemented simultaneously and automatically thus reducing the need for paperwork.
A. Phase 1
No documents are required to be submitted by the farmer.
- The farmer should register all his local Cattle with the local Veterinary Dispensary or Veterinary Hospital free of cost.
- The farmer should intimate the local Veterinary Centre whenever the animal shows heat symptoms. The farmer is then entitled to a cash incentive of Rupees One Hundred per A.I. of local Cow after performing the A.I of his Cow, which is on proper heat.
- The Cow has to be kept tied on the day of A.I. and two days subsequent to the Heat, so as to, avoid natural service by local bull.
- No Additional cash will be given for repeat of A.I. for the same heat.
Incentive will be given only for one repeat A.I. Cycle @ Rs.100/- (Rupees One Hundred only) per A.I.
B. Phase 2
The Animals under the scheme will be micro chipped in the third month after confirmation of pregnancy.
- The local Veterinary Doctor will then recommend the case to Head Office for feed incentive.
- On confirmation of pregnancy, the Farmer is entitled for feed incentive from the 4th month onward @ 2.5 Kg per day per animal for six months.
- All local Veterinary Doctors may be given a reserve fund of upto Rs 1000/- ( Rupees One Thousand only) (for cash payment to farmers per local A.I., which will be monitored by Assistant Director, KVSc, under the supervision of the Deputy Director(Gyn).
- Feed allowance will be discontinued in case of abortion / death of animal.
- The Local Officer may report regarding non-stall feeding of the animals, in which case the feed allowance may be reconsidered.
The Assistant Director (KVS) will maintain a monthly progress report of the Scheme separately and submit his recommendations to the Deputy Director (Gyn) in the head Office.
- The Assistant Director (KVS) should see that there is no delay in submission of cases for feed assistance. He should confirm that, only farmers doing A.I. of local cows are given the benefit i.e. Rs. 100/- per A.I. and feed for six months starting from the fourth month onward for six months.
The farmers owning local cattle are mainly from the rural sector. However local animals in the urban areas will also be considered, and could be given priority so that the menace of stray cattle in urban areas could be eliminated. Local animals reared by N.G.O�s or other organizations will also be considered for benefits. There shall be no discrimination against any farmer since one of the objective of the scheme is to stop the nuisance of stray cattle by improving the germplasm, this can be achieved only if all local animals are netted into the scheme irrespective of the financial background of the owner.